Publications & Presentations


June 2021

Phase 1 Results for ATI-2173, a Novel Active Site Polymerase Inhibitor Nucleotide (ASPIN), in HBV-Infected Subjects

Presented at the EASL Digital International Liver Congress™ 2021

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June 2021

Pharmacokinetics of ATI-2173, a Novel Active Site Polymerase Inhibitor Nucleotide (ASPIN), in a Phase 1b Clinical Trial

Presented at the EASL Digital International Liver Congress™ 2021

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June 2021

ATI-2173, a Novel Active Site Polymerase Inhibitor Nucleotide (ASPIN), for HBV Cure Regimens Is Well Tolerated and Has Favorable Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers

Presented at HBV-TAG Conference

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December 2020

Kinetics of Hepadnavirus Loss from the Liver during Inhibition of Viral DNA Synthesis

Paper published in Journal of Virology.

Hepadnaviruses replicate by reverse transcription, which takes place in the cytoplasm of the infected hepatocyte. Viral RNAs, including the pregenome, are transcribed from a covalently closed circular (ccc) viral DNA that is found in the nucleus. Inhibitors of the viral reverse transcriptase can block new DNA synthesis but have no direct effect on the up to 50 or more copies of cccDNA that maintain the infected state. FULL ARTICLE


December 2020

Clevudine Inhibits Hepatitis Delta Virus Viremia: a Pilot Study of Chronically Infected Woodchucks

Paper published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

In a small controlled study, clevudine, a potent inhibitor of hepadnaviruses, including hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus, suppressed hepatitis delta virus (HDV) viremia in chronically infected woodchucks. FULL ARTICLE


September 2020

ATI-2173, a Novel Liver-Targeted Non-Chain-Terminating Nucleotide for Hepatitis B Virus Cure Regimens

Paper published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

ATI-2173 is a novel liver-targeted molecule designed to deliver the 5′-monophosphate of clevudine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection. Unlike other nucleos(t)ides, the active clevudine-5′-triphosphate is a noncompetitive, non-chain-terminating inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase that delivers prolonged reduction of viremia in both a woodchuck HBV model and in humans for up to 6 months after cessation of treatment. FULL ARTICLE


August 2013

Noncompetitive Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Reverse Transcriptase Protein Priming and DNA Synthesis by the Nucleoside Analog Clevudine

Paper published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

All currently approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), which inhibit the DNA synthesis activity of the HBV polymerase. FULL ARTICLE


October 2007

Clevudine is highly efficacious in hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B with durable off-therapy viral suppression

Paper published in Hepatology.

Clevudine is a pyrimidine analog with potent and sustained antiviral activity against HBV. In the present study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of clevudine 30 mg daily for 24 weeks and assessed the durability of antiviral response for 24 weeks after cessation of dosing in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (e-CHB. FULL ARTICLE


May 2007

Twenty-four-week clevudine therapy showed potent and sustained antiviral activity in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B

Paper published in Hepatology.

Clevudine is a pyrimidine analogue with potent and sustained antiviral activity against HBV. FULL ARTICLE


October 2005

Clevudine Inhibits Hepatitis Delta Virus Viremia: a Pilot Study of Chronically Infected Woodchucks

Paper published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

In a small controlled study, clevudine, a potent inhibitor of hepadnaviruses, including hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus, suppressed hepatitis delta virus (HDV) viremia in chronically infected woodchucks. Suppression was correlated with the marked reduction of woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen in individual animals, consistent with the concept that repression of surface antigen expression may be a useful antiviral strategy for HDV. FULL ARTICLE


June 2004

A phase II dose-escalating trial of clevudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B

Paper published in Hepatology.

Current therapies available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B are limited in their ability to result in a cure. Clevudine is a new pyrimidine analog with potent anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity in vitro. FULL ARTICLE


January 2001

Antiviral activity of clevudine [L-FMAU, (1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-β, L-arabinofuranosyl) uracil)] against woodchuck hepatitis virus replication and gene expression in chronically infected woodchucks (Marmota monax)s

Paper published in Hepatology.

L-FMAU [1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-β,L-arabinofuranosyl) uracil] has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus replication in cell culture and duck hepatitis B virus replication in acutely infected Peking ducks. FULL ARTICLE